Medical science can not explain why some people can make cancer, and others do not. Scientists have studied the general population pattern for cancer to understand which of the surrounding or lifestyle can increase the risk of developing cancer.
Everything increases the chance of developing cancer is called a risk factor, any less chance of developing cancer is called a protective factor.
Some of the risk factors can be removed, but many do not. For example, one can quit smoking but we can not have the option of choosing the type of inherited genes from parents. And smoking and hereditary factors are considered risk factors for certain types of cancer but only smoking can be avoided.
Prophylaxis means avoiding risk factors and favoring protective factors that can be controlled and thus the chance of developing cancer can decrease.
Although many risk factors can be avoided, it is important to know that their avoidance does not guarantee the cessation of cancer. Also, many people with particular risk factors to develop cancer will not develop cancer. Some people are more sensitive than others to various factors that predispose cancer. Medical consultation is required to find out the methods of prophylaxis for different types of cancer.
The endometrium is the superficial tissue that covers the internal surface of the uterus and is part of the female reproductive system.
The importance of endometrial cancer
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The Importance of Endometrial Cancer
In the United States, endometrial cancer has the most common of all cancers of the female reproductive system. It occurs especially in menopausal women. The number of new cases of endometrial cancer has dropped as mortality by this type of cancer has decreased. Endometrial cancer is more common in white women than in black women, with the latter having much worse progression and prognosis.
There are several risk factors for endometrial cancer. Many of them can be influenced but not all can be avoided.
– hormone replacement therapy. Women receiving hormone replacement therapy during menopause on a period longer than 5 years have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer 10 times those who do not receive this type of therapy. Adding progesterone to estrogen therapy (combined hormone therapy) lowers the risk of developing endometrial cancer or precancerous lesions such as atypical hyperplasia
Selective estrogen receptor modulators: Tamoxifen and Raloxifen, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), have been studied for breast cancer prophylaxis. Administration of tamoxifen increased the risk of developing endometrial cancer especially in menopausal women. Raloxifene did not present this risk
– Use of oral contraceptives: The use of combined contraceptives in premenopausal women has reduced the risk of developing endometrial cancer, approximately 50% after 4 years of administration and 72% after 12 years.
– Depending on the period of activity, menstruation or menopause: onset of menstruation at the young age and onset of menopause at advanced age are risk factors for endometrial cancer
– way of life and type of diet: the risk of developing endometrial cancer is higher in obese women. A diet low in saturated fat, rich in fruits and vegetables, especially soybeans and soy products, can lower the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Also physical exercise tends to reduce this risk.
– Hereditary factors: The presence of inherited genes predisposing to non-poliproliferative colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a genetic abnormality that is associated with an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer
– Polycystic ovary syndrome: Women who have polycystic ovarian syndrome (hormone imbalance produced by the ovary) are at a higher risk of developing endometrial cancer
– the number of births and breastfeeding: Never-given women have a much higher risk of developing endometrial cancer than women who have had multiple births. Also breastfeeding women have a lower risk of developing endometrial cancer.